PAHs Testing

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized). Formally, the class is further defined as lacking further branching substituents off of these ring structures. AHs usually exist in petrochemical, rubber, plastics, lubricant, antirust oil and organic compounds of incomplete combustion. But some PAHs are carcinogenic and mutagenic. So far there are more than 100 known PAHs,18 of which are common (see the German standard below for specifics).

Tags: environment, food contact materials (FCMs), electrical and electronic equipment, toys, stationery and children’s products, textiles, footwear and luggage

The Presence of PAHs

Materials that may contain PAHs: charcoal, crude oil, creosote, tar (natural); medication, dyes, plastics, rubber, pesticide (artificial); lubricant, releasing agent, capacitor electrolyte, mineral oil, asphalt (artificial); pesticide, germicide, mosquito-repellent incense, smoking, gasoline retarder (artificial), etc.

Products that may contain PAHs: plastic & rubber handle, plastic packing containers, plastics with strange odour, rubber products, plastic and rubber components in electrical and electronic equipment.

Regulations

Up to now, countries and regions specify PAHs requirements through regulations and other written documents:

Germany: GS certification, LFGB;

EU: REACH Regulation;

US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA);

China GB, GB/T, GHZB;

OEKO-TEX® standard 100

 

Comparison List of PAHs Testing

SN

Test Item

Abbr.

CAS NO

GS MARK

REACH Annex XVII

US EPA

OEKO-TEX®standard 100

1

Benzo[a]pyrene

BaP

50-32-8

2

Benzo[e]pyrene

BeP

192-97-2

 

3

Benzo[a]anthracene

BaA

56-55-3

4

Chrysene

CHR

218-01-9

5

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BbFA

205-99-2

6

Benzo[j]fluoranthene

BjFA

205-82-3

 

7

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

BkFA

207-08-9

8

Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene

DBAhA

53-70-3

9

Naphthalene

Nap

91-20-3

 

10

Indeno[l,2,3-cd]pyrene

IND

193-39-5

 

11

Acenaphthylene

AcPy

208-96-8

 

12

Acenaphthene

Acp

83-32-9

 

13

Fluorene

Flu

86-73-7

 

14

Phenanthrene

PA

85-1-8

 

15

Pyrene

Pyr

129-00-0

 

16

Anthracene

Ant

120-12-7

 

17

Fluoranthene

FL

206-44-0

 

18

Benzo[g,h,i]perylene

BghiP

191-24-2

 

19

Cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene

 

27208-37-3

 

 

 

20

Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene

 

192-65-4

 

 

 

21

Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene

 

189-64-0

 

 

 

22

Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene

 

189-55-9

 

 

 

23

Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

 

191-30-0

 

 

 

24

1-Methylpyrene

 

2381-21-7

 

 

 

 [Germany Standard] PAH Testing

PAHs-containing products have given rise to public concern since Germany found dangerous levels of PAHs were present in iron hammer handle in 2015. Germany mandated PAHs testing in GS mark certification as specified in document ZEK-01-08 to regulate 16 PAHs. The provision took into force on 1 April 2008.

To comply with new requirements for PAHs, the German Committee for Technical Equipment and Consumer Products (Der Ausschuss für Technische Arbeitsmittel und Verbraucherprodukte, ATAV)’ agreed to include Benzo[j]fluoranthene and Benzo[e]pyrene (from 16 PAHs to 18 PAHs), applicable to the testing for all products. On 29 November 2007, German Security Technology Certification Center (Zentralstelle der Lander fur Sicherheitstechnik, ZLS) published new standard ZEK 01.4-08 requiring GS mark certified products should be subject to 18 PAHs testing since 1 July 2012. Meanwhile, the products of which the GS Mark certificates were issued after 1 July 2012 should comply with new provisions in ZEK 01.4-08 (the previous version EK-01-08  went invalid since 30 June 2012).

The PAHs limits set forth in AfPS GS 2014:01 PAK are as the following: (Unit: mg/kg)

SN

Parameter

Abbr.

CAS No

Category 1

Category 2

Category 3

Materials intended to be put in the mouth, or materials of toys with intended long-term skin contact (longer than 30s)

Materials not covered by category 1, with foreseeable skin contact for longer than 30 seconds (long-term skin contact) or repeated short-term contact

Materials not covered by Category 1or 2 with foreseeable skin contact up to 30 seconds (short-term skin contact)

Toys in the scope of 2009/48/EC

Other products

Toys in the scope of 2009/48/EC

Other products

1

Benzo[a]pyrene

BaP

50-32-8

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

2

Benzo[e]pyrene

BeP

192-97-2

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

3

Benzo[a]anthracene

BaA

56-55-3

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

4

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BbFA

205-99-2

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

5

Benzo[j]fluoranthene

BjFA

205-82-3

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

6

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

BkFA

207-08-9

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

7

Chrysene

CHR

218-01-9

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

8

Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene

DBA

53-70-3

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

9

Benzo[g,h,i]perylene

BghiP

191-24-2

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

10

Indeno[l,2,3-cd]pyrene

IND

193-39-5

< 0.2

< 0.2

< 0.5

< 0.5

< 1

11

Acenaphthylene

AcPy

208-96-8

<1
Sum

< 5
Sum

< 10
Sum

< 20
Sum

< 50
Sum

12

Acenaphthene

Acp

83-32-9

13

Fluorene

Flu

86-73-7

14

Phenanthrene

PA

85-1-8

15

Pyrene

Pyr

129-00-0

16

Anthracene

Ant

120-12-7

17

Fluoranthene

FL

206-44-0

18

Naphthalene

Nap

91-20-3

< 1

< 2

< 10

Sum of 18 PAHs

< 1

< 5

< 10

< 20

< 50

Scope: electrical and electronic equipment, rubber and plastic products, paints and coatings, electrical tools, packaging, toys, utensil materials, leather products and wood products.

 

[EU Standard] PAHs Testing

Extender oil offered for sale on the market or used for tyre production as set forth in 2005/69/EC and REACH Annex XVII shall comply with the following requirements:

SN

Name

Abbr.

CAS No

REACH Regulation

1

Benzo[a]pyrene

BaP

50-32-8

<1mg/kg

2

Benzo[e]pyrene

BeP

192-97-2

Sum of 8 PAHs ≤10mg/kg

3

Benzo[a]anthracene

BaA

56-55-3

4

Chrysene

CHR

218-01-9

5

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BbFA

205-99-2

6

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

BkFA

207-08-9

7

Benzo[j]fluoranthene

BjFA

205-82-3

8

Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene

DBAhA

53-70-3


■The polycyclic aromatics (PCA) extract is less than 3 % by weight as measured by the Institute of Petroleum standard IP 346:1998.

■ The new test method EN 16143:2013 will supersede the existing method IP 346 until 23 September 2016.

Tyres and tyre parts regulatory compliance:

■ The vulcanised rubber compounds do not exceed the limit of 0,35 % Bay protons as measured and calculated by ISO 21461.


Scope: automobiles, tyre and rubber industries. Materials of high concern include carbon black, film, reclaimed rubber and rubber oil.

Notice:The requirements for tyres, rubber extender oil and reclaimed tyres set forth in REACH Regulation shall apply since 1 January 2010.

 

【OEKO-TEX®standard 100】

   OEKO-TEX®standard 100 primarily specifies for limits of 24 PAHs in textiles and leather articles:

SN

Test Item

Abbr.

CAS NO

I-Baby products (under 36 months of age, excluding leather articles)

Ⅱ-In direct contact with skin

Ⅲ- With no direct contact with skin

Ⅳ-Decoration material

1

Benzo[a]pyrene

BaP

50-32-8

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

2

Benzo[e]pyrene

BeP

192-97-2

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

3

Benzo[a]anthracene

BaA

56-55-3

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

4

Chrysene

CHR

218-01-9

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

5

Benzo[b]fluoranthene

BbFA

205-99-2

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

6

Benzo[j]fluoranthene

BjFA

205-82-3

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

7

Benzo[k]fluoranthene

BkFA

207-08-9

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

8

Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene

DBAhA

53-70-3

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

9

Naphthalene

Nap

91-20-3

 

 

 

 

10

Indeno[l,2,3-cd]pyrene

IND

193-39-5

 

 

 

 

11

Acenaphthylene

AcPy

208-96-8

 

 

 

 

12

Acenaphthene

Acp

83-32-9

 

 

 

 

13

Fluorene

Flu

86-73-7

 

 

 

 

14

Phenanthrene

PA

85-1-8

 

 

 

 

15

Pyrene

Pyr

129-00-0

 

 

 

 

16

Anthracene

Ant

120-12-7

 

 

 

 

17

Fluoranthene

FL

206-44-0

 

 

 

 

18

Benzo[g,h,i]perylene

BghiP

191-24-2

 

 

 

 

19

Cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene

 

27208-37-3

 

 

 

 

20

Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene

 

192-65-4

 

 

 

 

21

Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene

 

189-64-0

 

 

 

 

22

Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene

 

189-55-9

 

 

 

 

23

Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

 

191-30-0

 

 

 

 

24

1-Methylpyrene

 

2381-21-7

 

 

 

 

 

Sum

 

 

5.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

C&K Testing can provide professional testing and analysis for PAHs as per standards of different countries and regions. Besides, we can render you one-stop solutions integrating consulting, testing and certification. Please feel free to contact test@cirs-group.com or leave us a message if any question. 

Disclaimer:

C&K Testing accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever with regard to the information on this website. Reproduction for non-commercial purposes of information and documents from the our  website is authorised provided that you acknowledge "C&K Testing" as the source.

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